Water treatment and filtration system
Water treatment and filtration system is of great concern when it comes to Portable water consumption. Environmental pollution is global challenge with every country implementing diverse strategies geared towards re-sustaining its environment. Clean, safe water is vital for everyday life. Water is essential for health, hygiene and the productivity of our community.
Drinking water sources can become contaminated, causing sickness and disease from waterborne germs, such as Cryptosporidium, E. coli, Hepatitis A, Giardia intestinalis, and other pathogens. "water treatment and filtration system"
Drinking water sources are subject to contamination and require appropriate treatment to remove disease-causing agents. Public drinking water systems use various methods of water treatment to provide safe drinking water for their communities.
Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water that enters the treatment plant. Typically, surface water requires more treatment and filtration than ground water because lakes, rivers, and streams contain more sediment and pollutants and are more likely to be contaminated than ground water. "water treatment and filtration system"
Today, the most common steps in water treatment used by community water systems (mainly surface water treatment) include:
Coagulation / Flocculation
These are often the first steps in water treatment. Chemicals (liquid aluminium sulfate (alum) and/or polymer) with a positive charge are added and mixed with water. The positive charge of these chemicals neutralizes the negative charge of dirt by causing the tiny particles of dirt in the water to stick together or coagulate. When this occurs, the particles bind with the chemicals and form larger particles, called floc. which are easier to remove by settling or filtration.
In the course of sedimentation, as the water and the floc particles progress through the treatment process, Heavy floc particles settles to the bottom of the water supply, due to its weight. Floc which collects on the bottom of the basin is called sludge and the floc is removed by filtration only .
During Filtration Water flows through a filter designed to remove particles in the water. The filters are made of layers of sand, Charcoal and gravel, and in some cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration collects the suspended impurities in water and enhances the effectiveness of disinfection
Filtration helps in the removal of dissolved particles, such as dust, parasites, bacteria, viruses, and chemicals.
After the water has been filtered, it is disinfected before it enters the distribution system using disinfectants like chlorine and chloramines to kill any remaining parasites, bacteria, and viruses, and to protect the water from germs when it is piped to homes and businesses.
Chlorine is used because it is a very effective disinfectant, and residual concentrations can be maintained to guard against possible biological contamination in the water distribution system."water treatment and filtration system"
Solids that are collected and settled out of the water by sedimentation and filtration are removed to drying lagoons. "water treatment and filtration system"
Water fluoridation is the treatment of community water supplies for the purpose of adjusting the concentration of the free fluoride ion to the optimum level sufficient to reduce dental caries. Community water fluoridation prevents tooth decay safely and effectively. page.
Household Water Treatment
In our homes water is treated in various forms before consumption; below are reasons for home water treatment :
- To remove specific contaminants
- To take extra precautions because a household member has a compromised immune system
- To improve the taste of drinking water
The most common types of household water treatment systems:
A water filter is a device which removes impurities from water by means of a physical barrier, chemical, and/or biological process.
A water softener is a device that reduces the hardness of the water. A water softener typically uses sodium or potassium ions to replace calcium and magnesium ions, the ions that create “hardness.”
Distillation is a process in which impure water is boiled and the steam is collected and condensed in a separate container, leaving many of the solid contaminants behind. "water treatment and filtration system"
Disinfection is a physical or chemical process in which pathogenic microorganisms are deactivated or killed. Examples of chemical disinfectants are chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. Examples of physical disinfectants include ultraviolet light, electronic radiation, and heat.
Community and house hold Water treatment is of great importance as it helps alleviate healthy living. A frequent and habitual practice of water treatment is needful. "water treatment and filtration system"