menstrual disorders (menstrual cramps and menstrual blood)
An in-depth study on menstrual cramps and menstrual blood would encompass menstrual disorders. Menstrual disorders occasionally occur in the adolescent girl. After the menarche, the periods may be irregular and anovulatory they may stop for one or two years. During the first few months of the secondary amenorrhoea, the suspicion of pregnancy is usually aroused, especially in the minds of the girl's parents. In due course, the periods return and become ovular in character.
Other menstrual problems include
- Amenorrhoea of non-physiological aetiology
- Polymenorrhoea and
This is painful menstruation. Two main types are described, namely spasmodic (also known as primary or essential) dysmenorrhoea and congestive dysmenorrhoea.
In spasmodic dysmenorrhoea, the pain is usually of uterine origin and is directly due to menstruation. About 50 percent of women are incapacitated monthly as a result of dysmenorrhoea. The outlook and upbringing of the individual plays a major role in the degree of incapacitation during menstruation." menstrual cramps and menstrual blood"
Spasmodic dysmenorrhoea is usually seen in young girls between the ages of 17 and 25. the pain is usually colicky in type arising from pain sensation in the uterus and related to muscle contractions. it is felt a few hours before the onset of the period and usually persists during the first 12 hours of the period after which it abates. The patient may complain of continuous pain which causes her to double up. It is usually felt in the hypogastrium and is sometimes referred to the medical and anterior aspects of the thighs. It may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting occasionally by diarrhea. The individual looks pale and may be covered with perspiration. There may sign's of rectal vesical irritability. It has been suggested that the symptoms of spasmodic dysmenorrhoea may be due to an upset in the autonomic nervous system.
Treatment: sometimes improvement in the individual's outlook, removal of contributory factors such as general ill-health and malnutrtion and encouragement of the individual to indulge in physical exercises may greatly help. If these fail, analgesics which are not likely to cause addiction may be given to allay pain. Suppression of ovulation with hormone preparations abolishes the pain of spasmodic dysmenorrhoea. This is because spasmodic dysmenorrhoea is usually associated with ovular menstruation. The hormone must be given from the 5th day to the 14th day of a 28-day menstrual cycle if it is to be effective. Cervical dilation under anesthesia is occasionally helpful. Finally, the individual may be advised to get married and have a baby. This last procedure sometimes brings about a permanent cure of spasmodic dysmenorrhoea." menstrual cramps and menstrual blood"
This type of dysmenorrhoea usually takes the form of a dull ache in the pelvis accompanied by a backache. This is the thought to be due to increasing tension in the pelvic tissues. The pain is at its height two to three days before the onset of the period and is slowly reduced as the pelvic congestion is gradually relieved by menstrual flow. It is frequently associated with menorrhagia or polymenorrhoea. The cause is not often known but it is sometimes thought to be due to pelvic pathologies such as chronic salpingo-oophoritis, chronic pelvic cellulitis or puerperal retroflection of the uterus. Sometimes the congestion may be due to anxiety, emotional instability, unhappy marital life or some domestic or sexual problem
Treatment: Treatment of the underlying pelvic pathology or correction of the underlying environmental or psychological factors is the best method of approach to congestive dysmenorrhoea.
Oligomenorrhoea and Amenorrhoea
These sometimes result from environmental factors such as change of residence, employment or psychological disturbances such as the death of a close relative, disappointment in love affairs. etc. In young girls complaining of amenorrhoea, pregnancy must be excluded. sometimes oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea may be caused by endometrial tuberculosis, chronic ill health, endocrine disorders secondary to disease of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovaries and thyroid glands." menstrual cramps and menstrual blood"
Menorrhagia is usually defined as a menstrual period which is heavy in amount or prolonged in duration or both. Its cause is usually uterine in origin arising from uterine fibroids, submucous polyps etc., but sometimes menorrhagia is caused by functioning tumors of the ovary such as granulosa cell tumor. Menorrhagia occasionally accompanies the chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. Menorrhagia, if protracted may cause severe anemia necessitating the individual's admission into the hospital. The treatment of menorrhagia is directed at the cause. iron supplements may be necessary and occasionally blood transfusion is given in very bad cases. The causal agent must also be removed. "menstrual cramps and menstrual blood"
This refers to cyclical periods occurring at more frequent intervals. Instead of the menstrual periods occurring every 28days, they may occur at 14- or 21- day intervals. This is usually due to some ovarian dysfunction. Sometimes this pattern of menstruation starts after an abortion or a normal delivery. Occasionally epimenorrhoea and menorrhagia co-exist and the condition is known as epimenorrhagia.
Treatment: in some cases, especially those following delivery or abortion, the cycle regains its rhythm and no treatment is necessary. In others, hormone therapy or curettage of the uterus may help.
This is irregular vaginal bleeding. the cause may be in the vagina. Foreign bodies in the vagina and, occasionally, trichomonas vaginitis and monilial vaginitis may cause metrorrhagia. As a rule, the cause of metrorrhagia is in the uterus or cervix. An ulcerated submucous polyp, an ulcerated cervical polyp, carcinoma of the cervix, cervical erosion and chronic inflammation are common causes of metrorrhagia. In women of reproductive age, conditions associated with pregnancy such as threatened abortion, incomplete abortion and placental polyps may be the causes of metrorrhagia.
Treatment: the cause must be found and treated.