Cervical Cancer: The Cancer Killing African Women
Facts about Cervical Cancer Treatment ; Every 2 minutes around the world, a lady dies of cervical cancer. hence the need to talk about cervical cancer treatment becomes ambient likewise its prevention
Cervical cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in ladies worldwide and also the second commonest female cancer in women aged 15-44 years old worldwide. cervical cancer treatment despite scientific researches and awareness made on it, it is astonishing that this only preventable cancer (Cervical Cancer) is still causing such high morbidity and mortality in Africa and other developing countries of the world.
What is Cervical Cancer
Cervical Cancer is cancer that affects the uterus (womb). A woman is in danger once she clocks fifteen.
The primary causal agent is the Human papillomavirus (HPV) with the high-risk genotypes (HR-HPV) being accountable for the development of invasive cancer. Over 70% of all cases of cervical cancer are directly due to infection with HPV-16 and 18 strains thus making it the only human cancer whose necessary cause is known.
In 2012 there have been an estimated 528,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 266,000 deaths from cervical cancer, with 70% of those deaths occurring in developing countries . In Africa, cervical cancer accounts for 22.5% of all cancer cases in ladies, and the majority of women who develop cervical cancer live in rural areas. Eastern Africa is one among the foremost heavily affected areas with an incidence of over thirty cases per 100,000 ladies annually. "Cervical Cancer Treatment"
In 2017, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reported that the number of Nigerian ladies affected by cervical cancer annually totalled 14,089 making it the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Sadly, this statistics isn't solely high in Nigeria. Up to 530, 000 cases and 275,000 deaths are recorded in developing nations each year. Put together, this can be 80th of the cervical cases in the world. This is quite unfortunate knowing that this kind of cancer may be avoided before it becomes full blown.
Current estimates indicate that each year nearly one thousand ladies are diagnosed with cervical cancer and nearly 700 die from the disease
Cervical Cancer ranks third among the most common cancers affecting women all over the world with an estimated 529,000 new cases in 2008, 85% of which were recorded in the developing world. Cervical cancer contributes to twenty to twenty-fifth of all cancers among ladies in Sub-Saharan Africa, about twice the proportion in ladies worldwide. In spite of the very fact that cervical cancer is preventable, the incidence is expected to increase to almost double the current rate by 2025. Cervical cancer continues to cause the deaths of virtually 270,000 women worldwide each year.
In Nigeria, cervical cancer kills one lady each hour and over 9000 ladies each year. A good percentage of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at advanced stages leading to poor prospects of long-term survival and cure. This is because of the non-existence of a national screening programme, lack of infrastructure, poorly trained health staff and huge financial cost. It obviously constitutes an enormous public health burden as the attendant loss of lives is unnecessary due to its preventable nature. Screening is currently viewed as the most effective approach for cervical cancer treatment, control and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. "Cervical Cancer Treatment"
Factors connected to cervical cancer include but not restricted to the following:
Several key risk factors for cervical cancer are common in sub-Saharan, West African countries and the world at large, this includes
- prolonged HPV and HIV/AIDS which is endemic in this region.
Other risk factors include
- A debut of sexuality before age of twenty years old
- Multiple sexual partners,
- Tobacco smoking
- Oral contraceptive pill use for more than five years
- History of cervical cancer in the family
- High parity (more than 3 children born), and
- Immune-depression because of malnutrition or different systemic diseases.
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted infection. This infection is thus widespread that seventy-nine million Americans have this infection. Over thirty-five out of the one hundred varieties of this infection can get into a woman’s vagina, cervix, the anus, a man’s penis, and scrotum, the mouth, and throat. Men who are diagnosed with head and neck cancer owing to this has increased in recent times. It takes about ten to thirty years before it becomes developed. Hence the necessity for a Pap smear screening each 3 to 5 years no matter your sexual status.
Sexually active ladies who started at a young age have a high risk of obtaining this cancer.
Quite a range of ladies who have a weak immune system is susceptible to cervical cancer. "Cervical Cancer Treatment"
This synthetic type of oestrogen is a leading reason behind cervical cancer. it's been established that women who have been diagnosed of this usually have about five years to live yet this preventable cancer can be diagnosed with Pap smear screening and the HPV vaccine. Unfortunately, over 75th of ladies diagnosed with cervical cancer haven't had a Pap smear done before.
The Pap smear is painless and is carried out by an obstetrician-gynecologist. A Pap smear test is usually recommended for sexually active ladies between the ages of twenty-one to sixty-five. After the speculum is inserted into the vagina, the cells collected are placed beneath a microscope to check for cancerous tumors. If a woman bleeds excessively, it signals a problem. However, there are exceptions. Quite a few numbers of ladies who have cervical cancer have undergone a Pap smear screening.
Although there are debates on if a virgin ought to go for a Pap smear or not, we tend to suggest you consult your doctor.
Cervical Cancer Treatment
There are various forms of cervical cancer treatment; Screening is currently viewed as the most effective approach for cervical cancer control and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease.
In low resource countries, cytology-based screening programs and/or DNA typing of HPV are sometimes beyond the capability of many health services. Visual examination of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) or Lugol's iodine (VILI) to spotlight precancerous lesions permits identification of pre-cancerous lesions in the clinic rather than the laboratory. With adequate coaching, any health care provider, together with doctors, nurses, or nurse-midwives, can effectively perform the procedure. Various studies have proven that using VIA, trained physicians and other providers correctly identified between 45% and 79% of women at high risk of developing cervical cancer.
Pap smear when combined with treatment of pre-cervical cancer and early-stage cancer, has been successful in preventing up to 80% of invasive cervical cancer cases in the developed world. Also in developing nations, high rates of cervical cancer mortality still persist due to lack of effective screening programs and low uptake of Pap smear testing. Newer technologies such as the HPV/DNA test (QIAGEN, Gaithersburg, MD, USA), cervicovaginal self-sampling, and HPV vaccination have the potential to increase screening and reduce cervical cancer in developing countries.
However, awareness concerning new screening and cervical cancer prevention methods remains low among most ladies, with studies recording almost no awareness of HPV infection, HPV screening and adolescent vaccination for the prevention of future disease in rural areas.
- Cervical cancer continues to be a public health problem in Africa, but screening using VIA (Visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid) is practical and feasible even in rural settings. Implementation of cervical cancer screening in all eligible women should be a national priority.
- Parents are advised to vaccinate their daughters against cervical cancer.
- Attempts to reinforcing the information of cervical cancer and correcting the wrong perceptions towards cervical cancer prevention can have a positive influence on its practice and furthermore assist all stakeholders in the health sector to work together to establish a national programme for cervical cancer treatment, screening, and vaccination.